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Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil) is a racetam drug derived from Piracetam in where the only modification is the addition of a phenyl group to its structure. It appears to require much lower doses for similar properties, and appears to have psychostimulatory effects.

Our evidence-based analysis on phenylpiracetam features 14 unique references to scientific papers.

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Summary of Phenylpiracetam

Primary information, health benefits, side effects, usage, and other important details

Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil) is a nootropic of the racetam family, and as its name suggests it is a phenyl- derivative of piracetam. Phenylpiracetam is reported to be more neuroprotective than piracetam is, but also possesses psychostimulatory properties and is reported to enhance physical performance.

There is a fair bit of research to suggest that phenylpiracetam is effective, like other racetam drugs, in attenuating the rate of and symptoms of cognitive decline. Many of these studies use phenylpiracetam for over one month's time, and the benefits seen may only apply to organic causes of cognitive decline (dementia and stroke) rather than traumatic brain injury.

There is only one rat study noting cognitive enhacement in otherwise healthy young rats, and this study only noted benefit with the R-isomer (the racemic mixture, which is commonly sold, failed to outperform control). While cognitive enhancing propertes of phenylpiracetam in youth cannot be ruled out, they are possibly distinct from the psychostimulatory properties (which occur with said racemic mixture and the R-isomer).

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How to Take

Medical Disclaimer

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Phenylpiracetam is taken at a dosage of 100-200mg acutely, and this dose is taken 2-3 times per day (totalling a daily range of 200-600mg). The lower range seems effective, but the optimal dosage is not yet known.

The R-isomer appears to be more active on the common usages of phenylpiracetam (stimulation and cognition) than does the S-isomer, and while the racemic mixture (commonly sold version) is effective for cognitive decline it is not certain if it works for nootropic purposes in youth.

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Human Effect Matrix

Unlocked for Examine members

The Human Effect Matrix summarizes human studies to tell you what effects Phenylpiracetam has on your body, how much evidence there is, and how strong these effects are.

Full details are available to Examine members.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c Minor Very High See all 3 studies
Cognition is improved in persons suffering from cognitive decline, organic brain lesions, and epilepsy. There are currently no studies conducted in otherwise healthy youth for the purpose of cognitive enhancement
grade-c Minor - See study
Physical function and activities of daily living in elderly persons after a stroke appear to be benefitted with phenylpiracetam. While it should work in elderly persons without cognitive impairment, this has not been tested
grade-c Minor - See study
Symptoms (cognitive and physical) seen after a stroke appear to be more rapidly recovered with daily usage of phenylpiracetam than with placebo
grade-d Minor - See study
Anxiety as a symptom of stroke has been reduced with phenylpiracetam. No studies currently exist in otherwise healthy persons with anxiety symptoms
grade-d Minor - See study
The rate of cognitive decline appears to be significantly reduced following usage of phenylpiracetam
grade-d Minor - See study
Depressive symptoms following a stroke appear to be reduced following ingestion of phenylpiracetam. Currently, there are no studies on otherwise healthy persons with depressive symptoms
grade-d - - See study
Despite the usage of phenylpiracetam to treat asthenia, the lone study assessing this in persons with traumatic brain injuries failed to find a benefit (which may be a false negative if phenylpiracetam is inactive on brain injuries in the first place).

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Things to Note

Is a Form Of

Also Known As

Phenotropil, Carphedon, (RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide

Do Not Confuse With

Piracetam (Parent molecule)

  • Phenylpiracetam is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (Olympics) due to its reported psychostimulatory and cold resistance properties

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Click here to see all 14 references.