Rose Essential Oil is the aromatic oil component of plants in the Rosa family (commonly referred to as 'Roses') and is usually from the Damask Rose (Rosa damascena), which is seen as having the most highly prized rose aroma. Rose is one of the more popular oils used in Aromatherapy for the purpose of relaxation.
Like most other compounds used in Aromatherapy, scientific support is somewhat lacking. There appears to be a variety of rodent models using the aroma of Rose indicating that it possesses sedative (not too potent) and anxiolytic (surprisingly potent for an aroma) properties, and limited human studies also suggest that this overall 'relaxing' effect applies to both the aroma as well as topical administration of the rose oil. There are some anti-stress effects (at least one human study to support this) and although there are two studies noting that Rose aroma had pain reducing propertes one was confounded with other aromatics (Lavender and Clary Sage) while the other used rose essential oil as adjuvant alongside anti-inflammatory medication Diclofenac. Although there is indeed evidence for pain reducing properties, it does not appear to be the best evidence.
Due to both topical administration and the aroma being effective, Rose is apparently a common oil to use in massage oils for the purpose of relaxation. The bioactives in rose appeared to be most Rose oxide and Citronellol, which contribute highly to the aroma of rose.
Overall, there is sufficient (preliminary) evidence to suspect rose has biologically relevant relaxing properties when used as an aromatic, although larger trials to validate its aromatherapeutic potential would be needed to support its usage as monotherapy.